SETatWork Presentation by: Peter Luby, IngEnergo Ltd. Slovak Republic and Marcel Lauko, ECB a.s., Slovak Republic
Waste-to-energy facilities based on traditional incineration processes create toxic air emissions and waste ash. On the other hand, Gasification processes are environmently more friendly and thermically more efficient. Unlike incineration, gasification uses a reduction atmosphere (lack of oxygen) under high temperature to convert organic materials into synthetic gas (syngas). CO and H2 are its main components. Syngas is free of unwanted oxide pollutants like NOx, SOx, Dioxins, and Furans. Minerals and other impurities are trapped in an inert slag. Sulfur is extracted in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or carbonyl sulfide (CS2). Instead of NOx, ammonia (NH3) is created. All these products may be isolated in marketable form.
An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system burns the syngas in a gas turbine or internal combustion engine driven generator producing power. The efficiency of the power generation process will increase sharply with the introduction of the next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide) soon to be available. Industrial and/or municipal wastes can be processed by high-capacity conventional gasification systems like the Fixed Bed Grate Gasifier (FBG), Slagging gasifier (BGL) or the Multi Purpose Gasifier (MPG). The most advanced gasification waste-treatment systems of "Plasma Solid Waste Destruction to Electricity" types are destined for a range of industrial, hazarduous and clinical waste streams. These units operate under extreme temperatures comparable to ones occuring on the surface of the Sun (5000°C). Total chemical destruction of all organic and inorganic matter to elementary atoms takes place under such temperature. The highly successful introduction of this technolgy started in military marine-based applications and will very soon see land based application.
This paper provides comparison of several gasification technologies applied to waste-to-energy conversion.
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SETatWork: Sustainable Energy Technology at Work (2008-2010) : Power Generation and Use : Thermochemical conversion of biomass : Waste to Energy